Type 1

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s own immune cells, designed to fight infection, turn against the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes accounts for as much as 10 percent of diagnosed diabetes in the United States. It develops most often in children and young adults, but can appear at any age.

Insulin is necessary for bringing glucose (sugar) into cells and when glucose remains in the blood stream the results may include increased thirst and urination, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme fatigue. Over the long term, elevated glucose levels affect all of the blood vessels in the body leading to an increased risk for blindness, amputations, kidney disease requiring dialysis, stroke and heart attack.

The past 30 years of diabetes research has focused on two areas: immune therapy and beta cell regeneration. Studies are currently underway to show that both immune therapy and beta regeneration therapy can lead to insulin independence in humans.


Type 2

The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. This form of diabetes is most often associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity, and certain ethnicities. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.

Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents, especially among African American, Mexican American, and Pacific Islander youth.

When type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the pancreas is usually producing some insulin, but not enough and after several years, the insulin production decreases further. The result is the same as for type 1 diabetes—glucose builds up in the blood vessels and can result in diminished blood flow to the eyes, kidneys, nerves of the feet, brain and heart.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop gradually. Their onset is not as sudden as in type 1 diabetes. Symptoms may include fatigue, frequent urination, increased thirst and hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds or sores. Some people have no symptoms.

Pathway to a


Both forms of diabetes result from too few insulin-producing cells. Perle Bioscience’s focus has been on identifying and developing new and unique therapies to stimulate the production of insulin producing cells. Perle has discovered four new Reg peptides. Reg peptides have been shown by leading laboratories around the world to directly result in the transformation of pancreatic ductal tissue into new insulin-producing cells both in man and rodents. BRAD is the newest Reg peptide in development, which has been shown to have the potentially be the most powerful among the three Reg peptides currently in development.



Perle Bioscience’s initial focus is on type 1 diabetes, which is the more complex form of diabetes. Perle Bioscience has initiated the first human clinical trials that utilize a combination of therapies for both the regeneration of new insulin-producing cells and protection of the new beta cells from immune attack. This innovative platform may lead to the development of more potent regeneration agents, including BRAD/Banta™ and the usage of immune tolerance agents, which have failed in achieving insulin independence when used alone. Perle’s regeneration approach is also planned to be investigated in patients with Type 2 diabetes and patients with PreDiabetes, who do not require an immune agent.



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Also: Diabetes in Schools